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The Presentation Title, Lecturer and
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The Presentation Title, Lecturer and Abstract (The translation of the presentation abstract is for reference only.)

The Presentation Title, Lecturer and Abstract

 (The translation of the presentation abstract is for reference only.)


1. Title: Reactor Vessel Head Penetration Inspection and Alloy 600 Issue
Presented by: Dr. Clayton E. Shaw,Westinghouse / WesDyne,USA
With the aging of the nuclear generating stations in the United States new degradation and associated nondestructive examination (NDE) issues are arising. One of the current NDE issues is associated with the inspection of alloy 600 materials. This alloy was used in weldments joining ferritic and austenitic materials. There are many weldments of this alloy being examined and scheduled for examination all the while new NDE techniques and tooling are continually being developed for this issue. The focus of this paper will be on the NDE techniques and tooling utilized to meet the industry needs and regulatory requirements for the reactor vessel head to control rod drive penetration weldments.

2. Title: Current NDT Research & Development for NPP Inspections
Presented by: Mr. F. Walte, Mr. P. Bieder, IZFP NDT Institute, Germany
The current development dynamics in computing, microelectronics, smart sensors and automation provide NDT system engineers with challenging opportunities for improved NDT solutions.
We focus on the quantification of inspection results with respect to flaw type, flaw location and flaw size, at high inspection speeds. We strive to conquer traditional inspection limitations, such as the ultrasonic inspection of anisotropic weld materials or the inspection of non-accessible component areas.
For nuclear engineering, risk based NDT has become an important procedure to optimize the contribution of NDT to nuclear safety concepts. We present first results of a 3-Dimensional Ultrasonic Tomography technique with high-resolution discontinuity images comprising all arbitrary scan angles at standard inspection speeds, which will help to evaluate findings in pressurized components and will help to avoid repairs that may even cause further degradation in the component’s quality.
The “Sampling Phased Array” technique offers the opportunity to match the phase of the ultrasonic propagation through anisotropic materials, supported by simulation. We present first test results of this “Reverse Phase-matching” technique.

3. Title: Visualisation of Phased Array Ultrasonic Pulses in a Solid
Presented by: Professor Ed. Ginzel,Canada Material Research Institute
Phased array ultrasonic testing in NDT is generally understood to be an advancement of single element ultrasonic concepts. But this is often not well understood by the student learning its features. Instructors of “traditional” single element ultrasonic applications have found simple straight lines at the refracted angles to be useful in conveying concepts. However, teachers of phased array ultrasonic applications attempt to use arcs to represent wavelets. By synchronising the phased array pulse with a strobed photoelastic system the real picture can be seen. This presentation will illustrate a variety of focal law variations obtainable using photoelastic visualisation.

4. Title: Phased Array Technologies for Ultrasonic Testing Machines)
Presented by: Dr. Jian Li, General Manager, Testing Machines, China
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies
Phased array technology has grown rapidly in recent years. A lot of applications are targeted for portable inspection applications such as phased array flaw detectors. We are presenting the phased array technologies for testing machine applications. The introduction of phased array brings a lot of advantages for testing machines, such as simplification of the mechanical systems with electronic beam forming, increase of the production with linear array scanning, one probe capable of multiple scanning mode, etc. In this paper, the principle of the phased array technology will be explained, and then several applications of phased array will be introduced, including the railroad axle inspection applications, railroad wheel testers, paintbrush technology for fast speed tube inspections, multi-zone inspection applications, phased array for tube/bar testers, and phased array squirter systems for aircraft applications. For each application, the design concept of the system will be explained, and then inspection output images will be presented as well.  The challenges on phased array applications and future development trend of the phased array technologies will also be covered.

5. Title: Advantages and Limitations of Various UT Techniques Such as Pulse Echo Using Conventional and Phased Array Probes, and TOFD)
Presented by: Dr. Garri Passi, Sonotron NDT, Israel
           Mr. Vincent Shen, Russell NDT Systems Inc., Canada

6.Title: The Application and Worldwide Trend of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing
Presented by: Mr. Li Yan, Jiangsu Taihu Boiler Co., Ltd.
The worldwide trend of phased array ultrasonic testing technology in application and standardization was introduced, including some of the typical application examples such as inspection of butt-welded joints in atomic-electric power equipment, boilers, spherical tanks, pipelines and small diameter tubes etc. The importance of preparation of calibration blocks and welding samples and the performance demonstration was emphasized. The intention is to provide a reference to spreading the new technology of phased array all around our country.

7. Title: Discussion of TOFD’s Usage and Development
Presented by: Dr. Zheng Hui, China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute
1. The current regulation of TOFD implementation and the correlative emended codes (Supervision Regulation on Safety Technology for Pressure Vessel and for Boiler) draft about TOFD technique.
2. Discussion about the capability of TOFD inspectors.
3. Discussion about several important performances of TOFD equipment and probe. Discussion about key points in the actual practice with some cases, including usage of reference blocks, preparation of surface, probe settings, testing settings and calibration, usage of different scan manners and data collection.
4. Comparing TOFD with the RT and UT in some cases.
5. Discussion the acceptance criterion for TOFD measurement.

8. Title: The Application Case of TOFD Ultrasonic Testing
Presented by: Prof. Qiang Tianpeng, Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute
            Mr. Xiao Xiong, Jiangsu Zhongte Chuangye Equipment Testing Co., Ltd.
Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute (JSSEI) has cooperated closely with Jiangsu Zhongte Chuangye Equipment Inspection Co., Ltd, to perform ultrasonic TOFD in lieu of RT in some engineering projects. The TOFD applications are stated as follows:
TOFD ultrasonic testing on the welds of an oversized tower under fabrication;
TOFD ultrasonic testing on the site assembly welding joints of new spheric tanks;
TOFD ultrasonic testing on the in-service hydro-cracking reactors.
In this presentation, we will mainly introduce the problems occurred during the test and the related countermeasures, for example, the signal identification for dead zoon, transverse crack detecting, cracking under cladding etc.

9. Title: Magnetostrictive Sensor (MsS) Technology and Its Application for  Guided-Wave Inspection and On-Line Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)
Presented by:Dr. Hegeon Kwun, Southwest Research Institute, USA
Mr. Zhao Peizheng, Beijing Constant Technology, Inc.;
Technical background on the MsS technology is introduced including the underlying physical principles, sensor configurations, and the instrumentation systems (Model 3030 and 3030R).  Various industrial applications of the technology for long range guided-wave inspection are given; for example, high temperature pipelines, re-heater boiler tubes, heat exchanger tubes, tank bottom plate, crane or suspension cables and short reel shaft of cable car.  Applications of the technology for long-term on-line SHM of various structures are also discussed; for example, high temperature and insulated pipelines in processing plants, offshore risers, aircraft repair patches, and steel cables.  Finally, future directions of the technology envisioned for automatic, remote, wireless SHM are given.

10.Title: Modern Digital Radiography Technology
Presented by: Mr. Li Bo, Ms. Kong Fanqin,GE Inspection Technologies
Digital technology brought out the new concept for the industry X-ray inspection and promoted the development of digital imaging equipment. Compared to the traditional analog film technology, digital imaging method could not only improve the efficiency and decrease the cost, but also provide the advanced data management such as data sharing and remote inquiring and analyzing. In recent ten years, some kinds of digital X-Ray imaging equipment were applied in industry. Total five typical digital imaging equipments were introduced in this paper. Film scanner, image intensifier with digital cameral, computer radiography, digital flat panel detector and computer tomography, these technology will be shown from the characteristic, filed, standards and developing trend.

11.Title: The Latest Progress and Standard System of Industrial CR Technology
Presented by: Mr. Zhang Yiming, Shanghai Yinghua NDT Equipment Co., Ltd.

12. Title: EM NDT&E for Water Pipe Integrity
Presented by: Mr. Muma Kaba, Newcastle University, Advanced Engineering Solution Ltd, UK;
            Prof. Guiyun Tian, and Mr. John Wilson, Newcastle University, UK;
Mr. Steven Licciardi, Advanced Engineering Solution Ltd, UK.
The ability to accurately assess the current condition and predict future degradation during a pipe life cycle is essential to enable the development of a budgeted and targeted maintenance program thereby maintaining the structural integrity of the pipe. The complex geometries and low pressure in cast iron pipe systems makes the utilization of inline inspection tools difficult and costly. A method is described based around externally applied pulsed electromagnetic inspection of defects in both steel and cast-iron (water) pipes. Pulsed magnetic flux (PMFL) method of non-destructive testing has proven to be suitable in determining pit geometry compared to traditional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method. This paper shows the effectiveness of PMFL method in defect location and characterization in water pipes.

13. Title: Application of Laser Based Ultrasonic Guided Wave for Evaluation of Wall Thinned Pipe
Presented by: Prof. Joon Hyun Lee, Pusan National University, Korea
Wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components due to corrosion and erosion is one of the most serious problems to the integrity in main pressurized coolant circuits of nuclear power plants (NPPs). If the thickness of a pipe component is reduced below the critical level, it cannot sustain pressure and consequently results in leakage or rupture. For this reason, wall thinning by corrosion and erosion has been inspected in secondary side piping systems in NPPs.
Laser generated ultrasound is being widely used as one of promising nondestructive techniques with noncontact fashion. The hybrid technique with laser for generation of guided ultrasonic wave and air coupled transducer and interferometer for reception of wave is discussed  for the evaluation of carbon steel pipe with thickness reduction in this presentation. Linear slit array which has the gap of wave length is adopted to increase directivity of laser generated ultrasound and launch selective wave mode. The gap of slit array is calculated from the result of dispersion curve of carbon steel pipe. In order to receive the wave modes selectively, oblique angle of air coupled transducer is calculated from famous Snell’s law.
Artificially produced specimens of wall thinned pipes have elliptical shape of defects to meet the condition of real wall thinning. Signals from 6 specimens are evaluated with different width and depth of defect. The result shows the mode conversion of wave as size of defect increase. This result introduced experimental result for the evaluation method of wall thinning quantitatively and it also suggest sensitive wave mode for the variation of defect size and its receiving angle and signal characteristic.
14.Title: Ultrasonic Evaluation of Friction Stir Welding
Presented by: Prof. Liu Songping etc.,China Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new welding technology, which has been applied widely in aerospace, traffic, marine, etc., industries because of its unique mechanical properties and metallurgic structure. It is common importance to find effective nondestructive evaluation technique for FSW because design and manufacturing technology need data as input. A new ultrasonic method, which is based on reflection of spot-focused beam with different incident angles, for evaluation of defects in aluminum alloy FSW has been investigated in this paper. The relationship of incident angles, possible defect directions and thickness of defects in FSW to reflective coefficient has been used to analyze and estimate scanning incident angle range of probe beam. The optimum ultrasonic reflection direction can be obtained during the scanning of incident angles. It is helpful to improve detectability of defects in FSW. The experiment results presented in this paper have shown that ultrasonic evaluation based on multiple-incident angles by using C-scan technique is a very potential nondestructive inspection for FSW. Series of A-scan, C-scan and optical microscopy results have been given in the paper.

15.Title: Multiple-View Ultrasonic Imaging Technique for Pipe Welds
Presented by: Prof. Songping Liu etc.,China Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute
A new nondestructive evaluation technique by using multiple-view ultrasonic imaging based on mobile automated scanning system for pipe welds in-service has been described in this paper. Ultrasonic C-scan and three-dimensional P-scan are used to evaluation and diagnosis of defects in pipe welds. The results presented in this paper have shown that the characteristics of defect in weld, for examples, location, distribution and orientation and size of defects, etc., can be exhibited well in the multiple ultrasonic images. Detectable probability and reliability of finding defects can be improved remarkably by using the ultrasonic imaging technique, which has been used to non-destructive testing and evaluation of pipe welds in steam power industry so far.

16. Title: Ultrasonic Imaging of Defects in Materials and Structures
Presented by: Prof. Sohichi Hirose, Tokyo Institute of technology, Japan
Ultrasonic imaging technologies of defects in materials and structures have been developed with the progress of multiple wave acquisition equipments such as an automatic ultrasonic testing and a phased array system. The Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) is the most popular method in imaging defect shapes, in which an ultrasonic transducer is usually assumed to be a point source emitting waves with the same amplitudes into all directions. However an ultrasonic transducer generates elastic waves with directional characteristic. It is, therefore, necessary to take account of directivity of ultrasonic waves to improve the quality of defect images. In this paper, we propose a linearized inverse scattering technique with the amplitude correction and compare the results with those obtained by the SAFT. We also present a nonlinear inverse scattering technique based on the time-domain topological gradient (TDTG), in which a defect shape is reconstructed by minimizing the difference between measurement and numerical simulation.

17. Title: Evaluation and Analysis of the Latest ASME Code Case
Presented by: Mr. Li Yan, Jiangsu Taihu Boiler Co., Ltd.
The latest ASME Code Case was evaluated and analyzed,involving the comprehensive technical requirements and acceptance criteria of ultrasonic TOFD inspection of the butt welded joints in pressure equipment. The intention is to provide reference frame of applying the new technique in our country.

18. Title: Electromagnetic Testing Technology and Its Application
Presented by: Mr. Chen Jingui, Xiamen IDEA Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.
Comprehensive introduction to the electromagnetic testing technology development and its application in the industrial, which main include of eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, magnetic memory,.The article will introduce about principle of work, practical application, flaw judge.

19. Title: The Development and Application of Digital Acoustic Video (DAVTM)
Presented by: Dr. Josh Smith, Imperium Co., Ltd., USA;
           Dr. Chen Fazhong, Wain-tsiang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taiwan

20. Title: The Application of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Testing
Technology for Pipings and Power Plant’s Boilers Inspection
Presented by: Dr. Chen Fazhong, TESTEX Co., Ltd., USA and Wain-tsiang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taiwan

21.Title: Application of guided wave technology for long range inspection of oil and gas pipelines
Presented by: Dr. Paul Jackson, Dr. Gary Penney, TWI Ltd. UK
Long-range inspection techniques which utilize guided waves have been widely used for detection of corrosion and cracks in various engineering assets. These guided waves can propagate over a long distance and are excellent in screening corrosion and defect detection.
The long range technique provides 100% screening coverage and has the ability to inspect inaccessible areas such as clamps, pipe elbow and cased or buried pipes. It works without the need to remove insulation or coating and it is able to detect metal loss down to 3% of pipe wall cross- section.
Although this technique has been widely used in the oil and gas pipelines, conventional long range system however suffers from several technical limitations. This paper reviews current development of the long range system and the latest achievement in Teletest Focus.
Different case studies will also be presented in this paper.

22. Title: The Application of Saturation Low Frequency Eddy Current Technology (SLOFECTM)in Nondestructive Testing
Presented by: Dr. Chen Fazhong, Wain-tsiang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taiwan

23.Title: Research on Inspection and Analysis Methods of Buried Gas Pipeline Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Presented by: Mr. Weibin Wang, Mr. Muyang Ai, Mr. Yuqin Wang, Mr. Guichun Liu, mMr. Guangwen Liu, Mr. Wenqiang Tong, Mr. Zhe Liu, Petrochina Pipeline R & D Center,
Ultrasonic Guided Wave testing is widely used for the inspection of buried pipelines at present. The inspection principle, characteristics and application were introduced. As an example, pipelines in gas station were tested on-site and the testing result reliability was verified by excavation. Data analysis method was developed to analyze the inspection data. Comparison results showed that the ultrasonic guided waves can make it reality to test on site quickly, and has wide prospect.

24.Title: Research on NDT Inspection and Safety Assessment Methods of Oil & Gas Station Pipeline Defects
Presented by: Mr. Weibin Wang, Mr. Muyang Ai, Mr. Yuqin Wang, Mr. Guichun Liu, mMr. Guangwen Liu, Mr. Wenqiang Tong, Mr. Zhe Liu, Petrochina Pipeline R & D Center,
Conventional ultrasonic testing such as thickness gauging uses bulk waves and only tests the region of structure immediately below the transducer. Some new NDT methods have been developed to detect oil & gas pipeline defects. Several kinds of technology such as ultrasonic guided waves, ultrasonic phased array, time of flight diffraction (TOFD), are presented in detail. Safety assessment of station pipeline was made to give advice for repair and rehabilitation. All methods are studied to build an integrated inspection and assessment system of oil and gas station pipelines.

25.Title: AE Monitoring During Aircraft Flight Loading Conditions Fatigue Test
Presented by: Mr. Feng Jianfei, Prof. Wu Guanhua, Mr. Wu wei, Nanchang Hang Kong Universty
            Mr. Geng Rongsheng, Beijing Aeronautical Technology Research Center
The technology of acoustic emission (AE) real time monitoring the critical structures (include un-approachability components) during aircraft flight loading conditions fatigue test (FLCFT) was introduced. In a noise background due to severe shock and vibration, first of all, we seek many AE signal process modes what were time-based, amplitude-based, energy-based and spatial filtering techniques. After acquire the pre-process AE signal, we adopt a new AE signal analysis principle: give priority to AE diagnostic parameter trend analysis , multi-parameter analysis identifications and look  others (include waveform analysis)as assistant method. Real time monitoring of these critical structures was realized, and successful to predict a crack germination that come from a interlayer of a bolt hole. The mean of AE monitoring played a key role for the fulfillment of the FLCFT.

26.Title: Computer Radiography Technology
Presented by: Dr. Clinckemaillie Dirk, Ms. Kong Fanqin, GE Inspection Technology
Computer Radiography technology is being applied  more and more. There are so many advantages such as better efficiency( exposure time is about 1/3 or ½ of the film’s), lower cost, needless of dark room , real-time and remote data sharing and checking. With the development of the CR technology and application in industry, the imaging plate (IP) and IP scanner is being upgrade. The image plate structure and imaging theory, scanner technology parameters and development trend, standards and application condition will be referred in this paper.

27. Title: The Function of Geomagnetic Field in the Metal Memory Method
Presented by: Prof. Li Luming, Tsinghua University
Metal Memory Method was caused many concerns in several years for its simple and potential for failure forecast. However, researchers also found disagreements and confused results during practical testing and then querying its reliability for application, particularly on point about functions of the geomagnetic filed.
Out of question, the geomagnetic field plays a key role in MMM. In this paper, we report our works not only based on the theoretical analysis but several fine designed experiments also. The experiments included conventional tension testing, testing samples with punches with various angles of the geomagnetic field, zero-magnetic testing and rotating testing within Herm-hertz coils. The experiments data were well explained the functions of the geomagnetic field and could used as instruction of applications.

28. Title: Some Numerical Simulation Methods for Quantitative Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation
Presented by: Prof. Chen Zhenmao, MOE Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Xi'an Jiaotong University
In this paper, some progresses in numerical techniques for the forward and inverse simulation of Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (ENDE) signals are introduced. As the first part, efficient forward analysis schemes for the simulation of Eddy Current Testing, Remote Field ECT (RFECT) and Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing (MFLT) signals are described respectively in addition with some numerical examples. Fast and accurate ECT signal simulation is realized by introducing a database type strategy using precalculated unflawed potential field data. To meet the high accuracy requirement of the simulation of RFECT signals, a hybrid scheme using 2D and 3D geometry and a new formula for pickup signal are proposed. To improve the efficiency of MFLT signal simulation, a fast scheme was developed based on a FEM-BEM hybrid code of polarization method. In addition, a phenomenological method is also described in the first part, which is developed for the qualitative estimation of eddy current distribution and pickup signals. The second par is on the reconstruction of defect from the detected ECT signals. Reconstruction schemes of deterministic category and NN method, metaheuristic methods of stochastic category are developed and sizing of both artificial and natural cracks are performed by using measured signals. In the crack modeling and parameterization, an element of discontinuous material property is introduced to treat crack of arbitrary shape based on a given regular mesh. Several numerical models are proposed for natural cracks, which enables the reconstruction of natural cracks.

3. Title: Material Characterization using Guided Plate Wave
Presented by: Prof. Dale E. Chimenti, Iowa State University, USA
This talk reviews developments in guided wave materials characterization in the past ten years. Both isotropic homogeneous materials and anisotropic laminated media are considered. The influence of measurement geometry and ultrasonic source and receiver are analyzed to highlight their role in the estimation of elastic stiffness from scattering coefficients. Extrinsic properties, such as surface roughness, are briefly dealt with.  Theoretical modeling methods and strategies for efficient elastic stiffness reconstruction are demonstrated. Experimental techniques that combine wide temporal and wide spatial frequency bandwidth that enhance the speed and efficiency of the scattering coefficient reconstruction process are explained and demonstrated.

4. Title: Non-destructive Evaluation of Real Cracks by Linear and Nonlinear Surface Acoustic Waves
Presented by: Prof. Peter Hess, University of Heidelberg, Germany
The reflection and transmission of linear broadband surface acoustic wave (SAW) pulses with a bandwidth 200 MHz by microcracks was probed optically, by laser probe-beam-deflection (PBD), and simulated by the finite difference method (FDM). Extension of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) to a spatial resolution of tens of micrometers allowed the first characterization of real microcracks. The reflection of plane Rayleigh waves from a single microcrack was modeled by FDM and provided an accurate estimation of crack depth. A theoretical study of transmission of linear SAWs through surface-breaking cracks, based on Schwarz–Christoffel conformal mapping, is also presented.
Nonlinear laser ultrasound has a great potential for the characterization of linear and nonlinear elastic properties and NDE. Focused pressure pulses with pronounced compression phase are introduced as novel tool for sensitive detection of discontinuities in solids. The focused ultrasound pulses were launched into water by means of photoacoustic transformation of laser pulses at a concave spherical stainless-steel surface. The PBD technique was applied to detect the transient wave profiles with a bandwidth of 250 MHz, induced at the free sample surface. The potential of laser-induced focused ultrasound (LIFU) is demonstrated for real microcracks and edge discontinuities in glass plates and silicon wafers, respectively.

29. Title: Laser-Ultrasonics: from Laboratory to Industry
Present by: Prof. Jean-Pierre Monchalin, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada
In this presentation, an overview of the field of laser-ultrasonics will be presented. This overview will draw essentially from accomplishments and results obtained at the National Research Council of Canada. The principles of generation and detection will first be outlined, stressing a few key characteristics of laser-ultrasonics: the material is actually the emitting transducer and transduction is made by light, thus eliminating any contact. These features carry both advantages and limitations that will be explained. Another feature, which has been an impediment, is actually the complexity of the “laser-ultrasonic transducer”, but in spite of this complexity, it will be explained that it could be made very reliable for use in severe industrial environments. It also can be made very cost effective for a number of applications. Two applications that have reached maturity for industrial usage, the inspection of polymer matrix composites used in aerospace and the thickness gauging of hot steel tubing in production will be presented as well as several potential applications.

30. Title: New Opportunities in Ultrasonic NDT via Contact Nonlinearity of Defects
Presented by: Prof. Igor Solodov, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Conventional ultrasonic NDT instruments widely used in industry and technology make use of so-called linear elastic response of materials which results in the amplitude and time variations of the input signal due to its interaction with defects. The nonlinear approach to NDT is concerned with non-linear response of defects, which is related to the frequency changes of the input signal. These spectral changes are caused by anomalously nonlinear local dynamics of micro-contacts between the fragments of defects. The intact parts of the material outside the defect vibrate linearly, i.e. with no frequency variation in the output spectrum. Thus, in nonlinear NDT, a small cracked defect (transparent in linear ultrasonic NDT) behaves as an active radiation source of new frequency components rather than a passive scatterer in conventional (linear) ultrasonic testing. This makes the nonlinear NDT a unique defect-selective instrument for localising and imaging of nonlinear flaws. The latter include a numerous class of contact defects, scaled from dislocations (nano-scale) to fatigue (micro-) cracks and macro-debonds in joints. The phenomenology and a number of case studies will be presented to introduce new opportunities of nonlinear ultrasonic NDT for quality assessment and health monitoring of materials and components applicable in automotive, aviation, construction, and other branches of industry.

31. Title: Modern Dynamic Thermography for NDT
Presented by: Professor Gerd Busse, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Well known thermography can perform much better in active modes where heat is injected and the response of the temperature field monitored. As thermography does not require physical contact with the inspected object, remote heat deposition (e.g. by absorption of radiation or by inductive heating) results in a fully remote method.
It has been found that most artefacts are eliminated if not the temperature field itself is imaged but rather the local delay between heat injection and the temperature. Another advantage is the fact that the depth where hidden defects may be detected (“depth range”) is about doubled in such “phase angle images”.
Heating occurs also when elastic waves (sound or ultrasound) are damped: local mechanical losses occurring predominantly in defects turn defects into heat generators thereby imaging them selectively while intact areas are not displayed.
Examples for applications will be shown mostly on aerospace components.

32. Title: Acoustic Chaos in Sonic Infrared Imaging
Presented by: Prof. Lawrence D. Favro, Wayne State University, USA
Frictional heating generated by low-frequency ultrasound makes cracks in solids visible to IR cameras. Chaotic effects, including the appearance of fractional frequencies result from the non-linear interaction between the ultrasonic source and the sample. These unexpected frequencies are the major source of crack heating in Sonic IR imaging. Enhanced crack heating results from the dense acoustic spectrum produced by ‘infra-harmonics’ and their corresponding harmonics.  Single frequencies are much less effective in crack heating, and consequently less effective in crack detection with an IR camera. The transducer-sample interaction has been modeled using a vibrating mass bouncing against a rigid wall with a constant applied force, and with dynamic finite-element models. These models use a simulated input transducer that vibrates purely sinusoidally with a fixed frequency. The models all are capable of producing the characteristic infra-harmonic behavior, with frequent switching of the fractional denominator during short intervals of pure chaos.  The finite-element models include friction within the crack, and produce temperature values that agree quite well with experimental results.  Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented.

33. The title: New Aspect of Photothermal Spectrometry
Presented by: Dr. Tzuguo Sawada, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
We have been constructing " Transient Reflecting Grating (TRG[) A.P.L.57,132(1990)]" and Transient Reflecting Grating Spectroscopy(TRGS)[J.A.P.91,1074(2002)].These methods are new kinds of photothermal inspection technique and photothermal spectroscopy. However, a disadvantage of these methods are substantially complex optical configurations and need highly skilled job. Recently, we have improved on a user-friendly instrument which is installed transparent grating and simple optical arrangement [A.P.L.82, 2775(2003)].
In the lecture, I'd like to talk about above-mentioned new instrument and some applications concerning non-destructive evaluation of materials.

34. Title: Advances in Pulsed Thermography
Presented by: Dr. Steven M. Shepard, Thermal Wave Imaging, Inc., USA
Although the concept of active thermography is quite well known, until recently, it was not widely used for Nondestructive Testing.  Despite offering the potential advantages of non-contact, wide area inspection, thermography was generally regarded as a qualitative method based on subjective image interpretation that was not sufficiently sensitive for critical applications.  In the past decade, advances in the analysis, processing and modeling of surface temperature response to pulsed heating of a sample surface have led to a new generation of thermographic NDT technology which provides quantitative, unambiguous results that often match or surpass those of more mature technologies such as ultrasound.  In particular, the Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) method has made it possible to extract useful depth, diffusivity or effusivity information from a single pixel, independent of its neighbors, based on the behavior or its logarithmic derivatives.  We will review the principles of TSR, and present examples using composite materials and metals to demonstrate the quantitative and invariant nature of the method, and its ability to support automated defect detection.

35. Title: Pulsed Thermographic NDE
Presented by: Prof. D.P. Almond, University of Bath, UK
The presentation will review and compare thermography techniques that have been developed for NDE.  These differ principally in the modes of excitation employed.  Four variants of thermographic NDE will be discussed: pulsed transient thermography; lock-in thermography; laser spot thermal imaging and thermosonics.  In pulsed transient thermography the test piece is excited by an optical flash lamp and images of sub-surface defects or features are found in the transient thermal response of the heated surface.  For lock-in thermography, the test piece is heated by a periodically modulated lamp and the resulting thermal images of the surface are processed to provide amplitude or phase images that reveal the presence of sub-surface defects or features. Alternatively, a laser can be used to provide heating at a spot and the thermal image of the resulting heating is affected by surface or near surface defects.  In the fourth method, thermosonics, the test piece is excited by high intensity ultrasonic vibrations and heating resulting from frictional heating of defects is imaged.  The mechanisms of defect image formation will be discussed for each technique and the performances of the techniques for different types of defect will be shown.

36. Title: A Perspective on NDE Science and Technology at IGCAR, India
Presented by: Professor B. Purna Chandra Rao, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), India
Non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the scientific use of nearly all known physical principles to achieve stringent quality, enhanced material performance, higher reliability and safety through detection and characterisation of defects, stresses and microstructure degradations in materials and components. NDE techniques are used right from the raw material stage through fabrication, processing, assembly and after the component is put into service. With the development of advanced and smart materials, efficient component designs, closer tolerance of material properties and imposition of stringent specifications, industries of this century are facing several new challenges. In this regard, the major emphasis is placed on early and reliable detection and accurate sizing of potential and harmful discontinuities. At the same time, it is also becoming increasingly evident that it is both practical and cost-effective to expand the role of NDE to include aspects of materials characterisation, production and application and to introduce NDE much earlier in the design stage.  In the direction, tremendous progress took place in India in the last three decades and a Centre of Excellence in NDE was established in Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam.
IGCAR features state-of-the-art technology that supports development of innovative procedures for reliable and quantitative NDE of fast reactor components. Comprehensive research facilities complemented by sophisticated instruments, sensors, numerical models, software packages and qualified personnel have led to the development of new and robust NDE technologies which have been effectively used to solve several challenging NDE problems in strategic and core sectors.
This talk gives a perspective on NDE science and technology at IGCAR. NDE measurements coupled with modeling approaches have been used to solve problems. Successful studies undertaken at IGCAR for solving challenging problems are presented. While the primary applications have been in the field of nuclear engineering and technology, the spin-off applications include application of non-invasive measurement techniques to the field of healthcare and objects of cultural heritage such as characterisation and conservation of ancient south Indian Bronzes, Delhi Iron pillar and ancient paintings. The talk would highlight the efforts made at IGCAR towards knowledge management, human resources development, personnel qualification and global harmonization. Success stories of research collaborations established with Indian and international institutes would be elucidated. Finally, the talk would explain how multi-disciplinary approaches with coherent synergism among various disciplines, resulted in frontier research getting converted to successful and mature technologies for industrial and societal applications.

37. Title: Characterization of Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Nanomaterials Using Near-Field Heterodyne Transient Grating Technique
Presented by: Prof. Qing Shen, University of Electro-Communications, Japan
In recent years, a great interest has been attracted on semiconductor nanomaterials. Since the semiconductor namomaterials show very interesting physical properties depending on their sizes, numerous applications have been investigated such as photovoltaic energy conversion, photocatalysis, and gas sensors. The photoexcited carrier dynamics of semiconductor nanomaterials and the electron transfer processes are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic conversion efficiency. We have applied a simple and new type of transient grating (TG) technique made by ultrashort pulsed lasers (femtosecond order), namely near-field heterodyne transient grating (NF-HD-TG) technique, to study ultrafast carrier dynamics of various kinds of semiconductor nanomaterials. In this presentation, we will introduce our recent experimental results to demonstrate the powerful ability of the NF-HD-TG technique, such as the study of the carrier dynamics of TiO2 nanoparticles with different crystal types, and that of CdSe and CdS quantum dots adsorbed on nanostructured TiO2 or SnO2 electrodes.

38. Title: Nondestructive Evaluation of thin Triboligical Coating Using High Frequency Ultrasound
Presented by: Dr. Dong Fei and Mr. Douglas A. Rebinsky, Technical Center, Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL 61615, USA
Thin (several microns thick) nanostructured DLC (diamond-like-carbon) coatings have been used in many tribological applications because of their distinct tribological properties such as high wear, pitting and scuffing resistance, and low friction.  In this work, very high frequency ultrasound (140 to 1,300 MHz) was used to nondestructively characterize a set of chromium containing DLC coated coupons.  First, high frequency scanning acoustic microscopy was employed to detect subsurface defects in the coating.  Defects as small as one micron were successfully imaged.  Second, a photoacoustic guided-wave technique and line-focus acoustic microscopy were used to systematically evaluate the mechanical properties of the coatings.  The potential of the photoacoustic method as an online coating quality control tool for complex-shaped components was also demonstrated.  [This research was in collaboration with University of Hawaii and Northwestern University and was supported through a NIST Advanced Technology Program, cooperative agreement number 70NANBOH3048.]

39.Title: Eddy Current Modeling and Application for Inverse Problems
Presented by: Prof. Antonello Tamburrino, Universita degli Studi di Cassino, Italy
This work is focused on quantitative imaging of defects in conductive materials by means of eddy current testing (ECT). By quantitative imaging we means imaging methods based on numerical models of the interaction between the probe and the defect(s). The imaging methods attempt to provide an image of the defect, at variance of commercial instruments that, generally, detect the defect (may have limited capabilities of extracting its major sizes by means of calibration curves obtained in predefined conditions). Numerical models of the probe-defect interaction play also a relevant role for the computer aided design of the probe.
The work will present methods for the solution of both the forward(probe-defect interaction) and the inverse problems (reconstruction of the image of the defect(s)). The methods have been developed ad-hoc for ECT and have been optimized for accuracy and speed in view of real-time applications.

40.Title: Inspection of Steel Degradation by Magnetic Adaptive Testing
Presented by: Prof. Gabor Vertesy, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
Method of Magnetic Adaptive Testing (MAT) is suggested as a highly promising non-destructive alternative of destructive Charpy impact tests for monitoring irradiation embrittlement of surveillance samples in pressure vessels of nuclear reactors. The method is described and its efficiency and sensitivity is illustrated on an example of mechanically embrittled series of round robin samples. Charpy impact test was performed and ductile-brittle transition temperature, DBTT, was determined. Magnetic descriptors were compared with DBTT values. These indicators, conveniently picked-up from the multiparametric options of MAT, were found to be extremely sensitive with respect to appearance and/or to growing density of the expected defects in the tested material. Sensitivity of optimal MAT parameters is able to surpass that of the others by orders of magnitude. These results give a good chance to determine the level of embrittlement of ferromagnetic steel samples due to neutron irradiation, with the aid of the non-destructive method of Magnetic Adaptive Testing.

41.Title: Identification of Conductivity Distribution Using Multifrequency Eddy Current Technique and Artificial Neural Networks
Presented by: Prof. Tomasz Chady, Szczecin University of Technology, Poland
Eddy current (EC) testing is a commonly used technique for nondestructive evaluation of conducting materials. Identification of flaws, cracks and other sorts of discontinuities may be realized using Automatic Defect Recognition algorithms. Because of low spatial resolution of EC probes it is usually a complicated task. This paper presents flaws identification algorithm based on artificial neural networks and dedicated approximation functions. General scheme of the proposed algorithm is as follows. A 2-D rectangular window is moved over a measured signal. The acquired data are used as an input for the nonlinear neural model. For each position of the window, one point of the defect’s profile is estimated. Feed-forward and feed-back neural networks having sigmoid transfer functions were utilized as the models. The proposed solution was evaluated using results of measurements achieved for the Inconel plates with the flaws having rectangular and non-rectangular profiles. In both cases reliable results of identification were achieved.

42. Title: Automatic Classification of Weld Cracks Using Artifical Intelligence and Statistical Methods
Presented by: Prof. Ryszard Sikora, Szczecin University of Technology, Poland
Welding is most common way of permanently joining metal parts. Defects and discontinuities in the weld can reduce the strength of the joint and can lead to catastrophic failure. The most popular method of inspection of welds is radiography. The radiograms can be analyzed by qualified operator or by using advanced computerized systems. In this paper the authors propose algorithms for automatic classification of cracks in welds. The classification is done in accordance with respective welding norms. The shape of the crack is described by almost twenty features calculated for flaws extracted from radiograms. The classification algorithms are based on neural networks and fuzzy logic. Some statistical methods such as PCA, KLT and various clustering techniques are applied to raise overall reliability and effectiveness of the proposed methods. The algorithms are verified on real radiograms of welds obtained from shipbuilding industry. Basing on classified flaws and on their features, it is possible to propose a decision algorithm for automatic accepting or rejecting quality of weld.

43. Title: Feature Extraction & Integration for Defect Quantification Using Pulsed Magnetic Leakage
Presented by: Prof. Guiyun Tian, and Mr. John Wilson, Newcastle University, UK
If the vast networks of aging iron and steel oil, gas and water pipelines are to be kept in operation, efficient and accurate pipeline defect inspection techniques are needed. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) systems are widely used for ferromagnetic pipeline inspection and although MFL offers reasonable defect detection capabilities, characterisation of defects can be problematic, quantitative sizing and location in particular. The newly developed pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL) system offers an inspection technique which not only equals the defect detection capabilities of traditional MFL, but also provides an opportunity to automatically extract quantitative defect characterisation through analysis of the transient responses of the measured signals. In this paper internal and external defects in rolled steel water pipes are examined using PMFL and feature extraction and integration techniques are explored to both provide defect depth information and to discriminate between internal and external defects. Feature combinations are recommended for defect characterisation and the paper concludes that time and amplitude features of PMFL can provide enhanced defect characterisation capabilities for flux leakage based inspection systems using feature extraction and integration.

44. Title: Fringe Pattern in Ultrasonic C-scan Image of C-sandwich Structure
Presented by: Mr. Guo Guangping, Research fellow, NDT Lab, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
A strange fringe pattern was found when a C-sandwich composite part was inspected with through transmission ultrasonic C-scan method. Dark fringes appear in C-scan image, which look like optical moiré phenomenon. Generally speaking, dark area in the image corresponds to high acoustic attenuation and could be interpreted as defects of debonds or delaminations. Since the pattern has regular appearance, structure factors should be considered rather than defects. At the area fringe pattern appears, two layers of honeycomb in C-sandwich structure were placed in parallel direction. Computer simulation was used to simulate the superimposition of the two layers of honeycomb. Optical moiré phenomenon caused by overlapping of honeycomb cell’s wall can be found when two layers were placed in parallel direction. No moiré exists when the two lays placed in cross direction. Then, a sample of C -sandwich structure sample was manufactured whose two lays of honeycomb were placed in the parallel direction. Moiré phenomenon was found again in its TTU C-scan image. X-ray radiographic inspection results of the specimen show good agreement between ultrasonic attenuation and overlapping of honeycomb cell’s wall. In conclusion, different overlapping of honeycomb cell’s wall is the reason of fringe pattern in C-scan image.

45.Title: Study on the of Magnetostrictive Generated Guided Waves Signal Verification, the Method Based on Duffing Chaotic Oscillator
Presented by: Ms. Zou Jun, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
The technology of magnetostrictive generated guided waves has been applied to nondestructive testing (NDT) widely. It is difficult to detect the small flaw signal because of guided wave's dispersion and multimode. According to these characters of the signal, the method based on Duffing chaotic oscillator is presented to detect flaw signal. First, the Duffing chaotic oscillator is set into the periodic state. Then, the signal without pulsed electromagnetic is introduced into Duffing system, and the system is into the same state whether the signal with or without flaw. When the signal with the pulsed electromagnetic is introduced into system, the system will still in periodic state if it doesn't include flaw signal. However, if it includes flaw signal, the system will change into chaotic state. Therefore, this method can be employed to identify the small flaw and improves the accuracy of fault detection.

46. Title: Research of Online Automated Recognition of the Assembly
Structures Inside Complex Products
Presented by: Mr. Han Yaoping, Lecturer, North University of China
This paper proposes an effective approach for online automated inspecting and recognizing the assembly configurations inside complex products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography (DR) system. The paper uses a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) as the feature of recognition. VHPF combines integral projection function and standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in vertical direction of the image. Considering the different importance of objects inside the one product and the independence of their spatial orientation in circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses neural networks system to realize parallel operation to speed the recognizing process. Using whole-orientation features of the objects, the issue of blind area of recognition is well solved in this paper. Based on this approach, the first domestic “multi-view” X-ray DR detection system was developed, and it is successfully applied in online detecting some axial products which assembly structures are complicated.

47. Title: Integrated NDT Techniques Used for the Study of the Evaluation for Cracks in weld Root Pass
Presented by: Mr. Chen Zhiqiang, Ms. Li Lifei, Heibei University
The concept, the application value significant and purpose of the integrated NDT technique are issued by the theoretic studying and practical applying in site for the numerical years. This Method is introduced into analyze and evaluate the suspicious signal echo by the UT testing happen on the root pass of seam after welding of the erected joints being finished. It is improved reliability to determine the nature of defects and also provided with persuasion from the different points. At the same time, the root cause of leading to cracks on the root pass welding and correlation mechanism are analyzed in theory to provide enough